Before doing any serious hacking, you should install the Command Line Tools for Xcode and Homebrew. The CLI tools contain utilities and compilers such as make, gcc, git, and so on. Homebrew is a package manager for Mac OS X that makes it really easy to install stuff.
How to install the command line tools depends on the version of OS X that you
are running. The following method should work in most cases: open up Terminal,
xcode-select --install, and follow the prompts to install the command
Installing Homebrew is really easy. Copy and paste the following string into a Terminal prompt, and press enter.
ruby -e "$(curl -fsSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Homebrew/install/master/install)"
Afterwards, make sure to add the Homebrew binary path to your
$PATH. You can
do this by appending the following line to your
.bashrc (or equivalent for